Raylene Jorgenson, Doctorate in Natural Health
Certified Sports Nutritionist, Certified Nutritionist
A. ATP stands for Adenosine Triphosphate (Adenosine~PO3~PO3~PO3~)
1. ATP fuels muscle cells, through phosphate degredation. As one Phosphate (PO3) is broken
off , a great of energy is released for muscle contraction for up to one minute.
The result is ADP, Adenosine DiPhosphate (Adenosine~PO3~PO3~)
Another phosphate (PO3) is broken off, producing a great burst of energy again for muscle contraction for up to one minute.
The result is AMP, Adenosine MonoPhophate (Adenosine~PO3~)
It must be rebuilt to ADP then ATP to start the process again for energy production.
2. ATP rebuilding comes from three different ways:
a. Phosphocreatine – creatine (an amino acid) and phosphate, can produce a large burst of energy (4 moles per ATP/min), yet lasts only for a second or two. It takes time to rebuild ATP from this method. It is used by fast-twitch fiber muscles for short bursts of energy, and cannot be sustained for very long.
b. Glycogen (anaerobic conversions) – stored glycogen in muscle cells is transformed into ATP, without the use of oxygen (useful when one is scared and holding their breath, for example). The result is lactic acid, which causes muscle pain, making this not a preferred method of producing energy. It also does not last very long. It produces a medium amount of burst of energy (2.5 moles per ATP/min).
1) Glucose is the best type of molecule that can be taken in from foods for athletic performance and endurance. As long as oxygen is breathed in, and adequate water supplies are maintained within the body, while glucose is maintained in the blood athletic performance can continue on indefinitely.
a) Glucose, fructose and sucrose are forms of glucose that can be turned into Glycogen which can fuel the ATP cycle for energy production.
2) Proteins and fats must go through further processes before turned into glucose, and then finally reaching the glycogen stage when they can be utilized for rebuilding ATP. Proteins and fats are not as fast for producing ATP, the molecule for energy production, so performance and endurance for strenuous and/or long workouts is slow.
3. Food types and what they contain
a. Fruits – Carbohydrates: (Fructose, glucose), proteins, vitamins, minerals, enzymes, fiber, water
b. Vegetables – Carbohydrates: (glucose), proteins, vitamins, minerals, enzymes, fiber, water
c. Grains – Carbohydrates: (glucose, starch, resistant starch), vitamins, minerals, enzymes, fiber, water, fats
d. Nuts and seeds – Carbohydrates (glucose), vitamins, minerals, fats, proteins, enzymes, fiber
e. Legumes, beans, and peas – Carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals, proteins, enzymes, fiber
f. Organ meat proteins – Protein, fat (not always)
4. Maintain proper electrolyte balance of two minerals intracellularly and extracellulary and
5. Thus, the perfect fuel for athletic performance and endurance is carbohydrate obtained
from fruits, especially sweet fruits, such as banana, melons, and berries.
6. The glucose uptake and conversion is increased during strenuous exercise, and continues to remain speeded up at the completion of the workout. This slowly tapers down until it is back to normal amounts, after about two hours. The best time to refuel the muscles with glucose and water, then, is immediately after the strenuous exercise, and during this two hour period. Doing so reduces muscle fatigue.
6. A great homemade energy drink is:
8 – 12 oz. water (depending on how hot and dry the environment will be when you are working out
1 banana, smoothly mashed up
1 – 2 stalks celery
Reference: Guyton and Hall Textbook of Medical Physiology, 12th Ed. Saunders Pulisher, Jackson, Mississippi